应用次卤酸酯（ROX）作为卤化剂，其机理相同于次卤酸的反映，但是可在非水溶液中进行反应。根据溶剂的亲核基团不同，可生成相应的-卤醇 β 衍生物。
Under vigorous agitation and cooling to 0.deg.-5.deg. C., 150 g of chlorine is introduced within 6 hours into a solution of 182 g of cis-1,4-dihydroxy-2-butene and 288 g of crystallized soda (Na2CO3 *10H2O).. The mixture is stirred for another hour, concentrated under vacuum at 50.deg.-55.deg. C., and diluted with 0.6 l of ethanol.. After standing overnight, the mixture is filtered off from sodium chloride and thoroughly washed with ethanol. The solution and the filtrate are concentrated, thus obtaining 3-chloro-1,2,4-butanetriol as a yellow oil. Yield: 272 g (97percent of theory) of 3-chloro-1,2,4-butanetriol.
Kennedy oxidative cyclization
Kennedy, R. M. et al first reported that 5-hydroxyalkenes react with rhenium (VII) oxide (Re 2 O 7 ) to provide 2-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofurans in 1992. Oxidative cyclization occurs
with overall syn addition to the alkenes in moderate yields with little tendency toward oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. Since that this kind of reaction named Kennedy oxidative cyclization. Despite high stereoselectivity, a disadvantage of these reactions is the necessity of a stoichiometric excess of rhenium (VII) oxide needed to force these reactions to completion. The improved method was reported that 5-hydroxyalkenes react with catalytic amounts of rhenium (VII) oxide (Re 2 O 7 ) in the presence of another oxidant, H 5 IO 6 , to provide substituted tetrahydrofurans.
React with the stoichiometric excess of rhenium (VII) oxide
To a solution of 1 mmol of 5-hydroxyalkenes and 1.1 mmol of 2, 6-lutidine in 5 ml of methylene chloride at room temperature was added 1.1 mmol of Re 2 O 7. The rhenium (VII) oxide dissolved rapidly providing a red solution that gradually yielded a black precipitate as the reaction proceeded. After 1 hr, 1.1 mmol of 2, 6-litidine followed by 1.1 mmol of rhenium (VII) oxide were added. This sequence was repeated again after another hour. After 8 hrs, 10 mmol of sodium hydroperoxide was added as a 1 M aqueous solution. The resulting colorless mixture was stirred for 30 minutes, and then diluted with 10 ml of methylene chloride. The organic layer was washed with 10 ml of 1 N HCl to remove 2, 6-lutidine followed by 10 ml of saturated NaCl solution. The products were then purified by flashchromatography on silica gel.
React with catalytic amounts of rhenium (VII) oxide (Re 2 O 7 ) in the presence of another oxidant, H 5 IO 6
To a mixture of 1.0 mmol of 5-hydroxyalkene and 1.3 mmol of periodic acid (H 5 IO 6 ) in CH 2 Cl 2 at room temperature, was added 0.5 mmol rhenium (VII) oxide (Re 2 O 7 ). The reaction was monitored by TLC until all starting material was consumed (about 15 hr). Then, 10 equivalents of NaHSO 3 as 1.0 M aqueous solution was added. After stirring for 30 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 and the product was purified in normal fashion.